Monthly Archives: May 2016

Exercise: Strength of interpretation (DPP)

Choose two photographs that I think would best suit the following adjustments:

  • A strong increase in contrast that will include clipping (loss of detail) in at least the shadow areas. A pronounced S-curve is the standard method.
  • Low key or high key treatment, in which the entire brightness range is shifted down or up the scale. Curves or levels are equally useful in creating this effect.

Create these effects, one for each image, but in two versions – in colour and black and white. You should find that the effects can be produced more strongly for the black and white images than for colour.

For the strong increase in contrast i’ve gone with this image:

Rose2

With the strong contrast applied, the colour image looks like this:

Screen Shot 2016-05-27 at 12.55.00

As you can see, the red is extremely vivid, to a point where it’s too much. Some detail is lost to the shadows (you can just make out a leaf edge above the main bud in the original colour pic) The black and white version however, is able to withstand the increase of contrast better:

Screen Shot 2016-05-27 at 12.58.57

While I still feel that this would be perhaps be too much contrast, the B+W can sustain it much better than the colour. The detail is still lost to the shadows though.

For high/low key adjustments i’ve chosen this image:

Pebbles

With the high key adjustments:

Screen Shot 2016-05-27 at 13.17.09

The colours now ‘pop’ more than in the original un-edited version, I’ve not applied so much that the image blows out, but I think it has enhanced the colours significantly.

Screen Shot 2016-05-27 at 13.17.58

This transfers well in to B+W also. There’s a nice range on tones within the pebbles. Any higher though and the image would be blown out.

Exercise: Black and white (DPP)

Choose a subject, lighting condition or picture situation that you think may look better in black and white rather than in regular colour. Compose and expose for the black and white version that you will later process. You should find that you need to deal with rather different concerns, paying attention to shape and volume.

Process the image for black and white, and note what effect shooting in black and white had on my choices of subject, framing, the details of composition and exposure.

The OCA handbook mentions that if your camera allows a monochrome setting, it may be helpful to use. My Nikon does provide this function, but I want to shoot in colour as I feel this would be a shortcut, and I may not benefit from the point of the exercise.

For black and white

I saw this bike as a great opportunity to experiment with black and white. The black of the leather and the chrome should contrast well together when in black and white, you can already see the effect in the colour picture to some extent. I felt the need to pay attention to the parts of the bike rather than the bike as a whole object. I used an unusual camera angel to add some creativity and purposely left out the back of the bike (the wheel mainly)

For black and white2

Once processed into black and white, I upped the contrast a fair bit to really enhance the black vs chrome.

Perhaps I should have used an example that contained more colour to begin with , as the only real colour here is the pedestrians to the top right of the image. With this in mind I took another shot…..

From one extreme to the other, I took a photo full of colours:

I wanted to experiment with the techniques I should be using/elements i should be aware of while shooting multiple colours with the idea of turning into black and white. The motorcycle was pretty self explanatory and I knew it could convert very easily.

Flowers

I paid attention to the tier positioning of the plant pots, as I feel this would add a nice element when processing to black and white. I was aware of trying to make all the colours as vivid as possible, as this will give multiple tones when black and white.

FLowers bw

I had to experiment a lot with the hue levels, as altering each individual colour altered the picture quite drastically and in many different areas. I ended on this version as I think it has enough contrast within the flowers, and also has an acceptable variety of tones. The only area that could use a tweak is the yellow tulips – they appear to be almost inverted, appearing very grey. This is most likely because the original colour image shows the yellow to be very saturated and bright. It’s easily corrected by lowering the yellow level in photoshop.

Exercise: Interpretive processing (DPP)

This exercise focuses on making interpretations for a creative purpose. Chose an image that you feel is open to different creative interpretations. Given all the adjustment controls available in processing software, find different ways of interpreting the image. Make 3 different versions of the same image, together with a written explanation of what you were trying to achieve.

This is the exercise i’ve most been looking forward to. I often play around with my photos and make numerous version of the same image.

Here’s the original image i’m using:

Original Surf

Version 1:

Surf 1

For the first version i’ve kept the shot in colour, but wanted to improve the tone and contrast. The original was fairly dark (shot on a cloudy day and late in the afternoon/early evening) and I wanted to make the colour of the surfboard pop out more. I’ve added a slight vignette to the edges of the photo as a way aiding focus on the surfer. I’ve also cropped out the woman to the right of the shot as she is distracting.

Version 2:

Surf 2

For this version i’ve gone for a subtle sepia look (manually, not using the photoshop pre-setting) inspired by vintage surf photography. I’ve added film grain and altered the exposure and tone levels. (Again i’ve cropped the lady out to the right)

Version 3:

Surf 3

It’s amazing how different an image can appear when you flip it, I flipped it horizontally to create the ‘opposite’ of the original photo. I wanted to produce something fairly moody and cinematic, so I chose to go for black and white, adding 2 light sources. the first was a subtle spotlight directed from the bottom left corner towards the tip of the surfboard, and the second was a lens flare positioned at the top right corner. I like the tiny hints of colour – the pink from the lens and the green from the effect.

It’s amazing how you can change an image so drastically with processing software. From correcting an image using the previous tools i’ve worked with, to adding lighting and effects/filters.

It’s hard to pick a favourite as they’re all so different, but i’m really pleased with the results. Its sometimes quite difficult to imagine how you want your edited picture to look, and then achieving it using all the different methods/effects/filters that photoshop has to offer!

Exercise: Managing colour (DPP)

For this exercise find 2 or 3 images that have significant colour cast. The main purpose of the exercise is to ‘correct’ it. For most photography all that is important is that the overall colour looks reasonable and expected.

Make sure that at least one image contains a surface that is ‘known’ (that is, expected) to be grey i.e concert, steel, thick clouds, shadows on white.

Colour cast 2

This image has a  ‘dark blue/orange’ feel to it, and doesn’t look quite right. It is important to bare in mind at this stage that while colour cast should be removed generally speaking, it does boil down to the viewers interpretation. While this image doesn’t contain a definite grey area, the sky was a light blue (as seen by the human eye.)

Colour cast 2 edit

Using the techniques seen in the previous exercise I adjusted several areas and produced a much better example of what the eye saw. I set the black and white point, adjusted the midtowns and lightened the image.

Colour cast 3

I felt the above image had a slightly green/yellow cast to it, and it also contained my grey. The sky was covered in thick cloud and mist. After applying the techniques we’ve just studied I produced this edited version:

Colour cast 3 edit

I’ve darkened the mid-tones quite significantly on this image which removes the mist feel that is captured in the top image. I had very few options with the sky as it is too bright and unfortunately clipped, leaving me with little option but to leave it. However, the image does act as a pretty bang on representation of what my eye was seeing.

IMG_0628

This image has a cyan colour cast to it, I don’t feel it needs much more correcting than cast removal. Perhaps some slight darkening of the dolphin as it does appear slightly brighter than when seen with the eye.

 

IMG_0628

As a general rule i’m very aware of colour cast as it’s one of my pet peeves. I try hard to eliminate it while taking my photos – I usually find i get cast if i’m using the wrong white balance setting. It’s never fully avoidable, so learning techniques to correct it in post processing has been very helpful.

Exercise: Managing tone (DPP)

Choose an image that needs some adjusting. Use your processing software of choice, adjust the following:

  • Set the black and white point until just short of clipping.
  • Assess and if necessary adjust the brightness of the mid-tones.
  • Assess and if necessary adjust the contrast
  • If necessary make corrections to localised areas

For this exercise i’ve chosen a shot that could benefit from some tweaking. Here’s the original image:

Tone

Here’s the amended image after adjusting the above points:

Tone 2

These are only minor changes but I do feel like they make a big difference. I’ve been able to lighten the top section of the sky which enhances the sunset as it now involves more hues than the pre edited shot. I’ve bumped up the contrast a little to enhance the warmth of the sun, and i’ve brightened the mid tones a little. I didn’t want the image to be too light, or it removes the idea of a sunset and the silhouettes of boats.

 

Assignment 2: Seeing Like Your Camera (DPP)

For this assignment we are to interpret how our camera see’s and processes different situations. We are to shoot in JPEG and no post processing is allowed. I do feel that with technology being so advanced as it is today that people tend to lean on software to correct errors, rather than avoiding these errors. With the correct knowledge we should be able to produce images that don’t require any technical correction.

I have a tendency to over think my assignments and exercises sometimes, and can get carried away with several different ideas which can lead me to falling behind.

I wanted to strip it all back with this assignment and focus on the technicality of my brief, rather than it being hugely creative. I need to produce images of a certain standard using my cameras settings, rather than relying on software. I am of course still going to make the photographs interesting, but the main focus here is how I interpret my camera settings and knowledge of them.

There are several key factors that I will need to consider for this:

  • White balance
  • Shutter speed
  • Aperture
  • metering
  • Dynamic range
  • EV
  • Highlight Clipping

I’m shooting fully manual as this is the only mode where i’m capable of altering and controlling all of the above.

I am to pick 4 out of the following 8 scenarios, and then produce 3 photographs on each (total of 12 shots):

  • Street scene in the middle of a clear, sunny day – narrow streets and high buildings that cast deep, long shadows.
  • Indoor space in which the only available light is strong natural window light.
  • Photographing people in the shade while the background is in the sunshine e.g. a group portrait in the shade of a tree.
  • Early morning or late evening landscapes with low-angle incident light.
  • Any backlit scene, whether in direct or indirect light.
  • Scenes which include objects of very different reflectivity, even in flat light such as an overcast day.
  • Indoor scenes illuminated by a single source of artificial light of high luminance e.g. a desk lamp.
  • A scene with strong incident dappled light.

With the weather being very temperamental at the moment i’ve definitely decided to go ahead with the indoor scenes.

Indoor space in which the only available light is strong natural window light:

Chili plant seedlings:

DSC_0801

F/13, ISO 100, 0.6 sec, WB – daylight, EV -1

For this shot I wanted the main focus to be the water drops on the centre and centre left leaves, rather than the stems themselves; so I used a fairly wide aperture (my lens had a range of F/1.4 – F/36) to create a slight blur away from the focal point. Due to the very dark rich soil I used a very low ISO as I wanted to reduce noise as much as possible, plus the daylight coming through was very strong. I always try to use the lowest ISO I can get away with. The natural daylight was coming in from the right hand side and was fairly strong so I reduced the exposure by -1 to eliminate any highlight clipping on the surface of the leaves and the water drops. I used spot metering on the most central leaf, and altered the shutter speed accordingly. This picture has not even been opened in photoshop, it is straight from my camera.

Bedroom:

DSC_0830

F/22, ISO 160, 1 sec, WB cloudy, EV 0

Shooting into the light, plus the wall outside of the window being white caused a great deal of highlight clipping warnings. The mirrored wardrobe door also had highlight warnings. At these settings the warning was to a minimum – I had always expected there to be some level of clipping. I found that using the daylight WB setting produced a cold blue hue, so instead opted for the shade setting, as this seemed to replicate a better representation of the hues my eye was seeing. I used spot metering on both the bright white wall and the dark underside of the nearest grey pillow to find my average (shutter speed as altered rather than aperture). I used a narrow aperture as I wanted everything to be in focus (as you would expect in real estate photography, i.e photographing rooms). While this is in no way an interesting photo, I do think it is aesthetically pleasing in terms of photographic settings.

Kitchen:

kitchen

F/4, ISO 400, 0.5 sec, WB direct sunlight, EV +1

With this shot the sunlight is behind me. I wanted to experiment with a scene that used natural light but didn’t include it. The bright white surfaces presented me with a very small range of correct exposure without any highlight clipping – resulting in over exposure. I chose a shutter speed of 0.5 seconds as the light was bright, and the surfaces also. I used a white balance setting of direct sunlight as this was my source of light (I had set it to indoor but this produced a very yellow tone) To correctly expose the juicer in the back corner I needed to increase the exposure by +1.

Street scenes in the middle of a clear, sunny day:

Baker Street

Baker Street

F/7.1, ISO 100, 1/1000 sec, WB direct sunlight, EV – 0.3

For this shot the sun is strongly on the left, casting the tall shadows almost all the way across the street. I included a fair amount of sky in this shot – which meant the likely hood of some highlight clipping was very probable. I used a low ISO to reduce and chance of noise and as it was outdoors and bright. I had to reduce the exposure ever so slightly to eliminate clipping at the top left corner. When zoomed in there are no areas of deep shadow that completely lose detail. There’s a slight lens flare just off centre to the left – a common side effect of shooting in the direction of the sun.

Hotel Complex

Hotel

F/18, ISO 100, 1/100 sec, WB direct sunlight, EV 0

This shot includes some very deep shadow, which when zoomed in to, loses visual content. This was expected as it is an underground parking garage, and has great depth. I used the spot metre to read the plant area just above the car park as I felt this was an average area within the shot. It wasn’t extremely bright, nor dark. There was slight clipping on the cloud, that when I tried to eliminate made the shadow areas appear too dark, so I left it in. I don’t feel that it lessens the image, but perhaps had the cloud not been there at all it would have been more satisfactory technically speaking. I used a narrow aperture as I wanted the far building to remain crisp and in focus.

St James’s Catholic Church

Church Street

F/7.1, ISO 100, 1/1000 sec, WB direct sunlight, EV – 0.3

I managed to anticipate this photo’s setting pretty quickly. I was aware that the silver and white cars may had some clipping, and also the sky so I chose a quick shutter speed and a fairly wide aperture. There is a small section of lost visual to the very right of the silver jeep – where the shadow is extremely dark. I feel like this is a well balanced exposed picture, and took spot metre readings off the buildings at the far end of the street as this was to be the focal point.

Any backlit scene, whether in direct or indirect light:

Tree

Tree

F/18, ISO 100, 1/80 sec, WB direct sunlight, EV – 1

I used a narrow aperture so the whole scene was in focus to add depth. The sun caused some clipping which was unavoidable and was expected considering that it is in shot. The trunk of the tree is almost a silhouette which is again to be expected as it is back lit. I used matrix metering so the exposure reading would be more general, and focus less one one specific spot. The green of the leaves is still visible, and the tree casts a pleasing shadow.

Buds

Flower Bud

F/5.6, ISO 100, 1/125 sec, WB direct sunlight, EV 0

This shot was using indirect sunlight which vastly decreased the highlight clipping warning. I used a wide aperture to create a bokeh effect which adds an aesthetic element. It also enhances the focal point. I used a relatively quick shutter speed as the scene was bright. I contemplated switching the white balance to ‘shade’ but decided against it, as although the buds weren’t in direct sunlight, they weren’t in the shade either.

Tree stump

Wood

F/7.1, ISO 100, 1/125 sec, WB cloudy, EV 0

I used spot metering to measure the correct exposure of the section of grass in the middle of the shot, and was aware that measuring off this object would render the bark facing me rather dark. I wanted to do this so it contrasted well with the lighter upper surface of the bark as a way of adding texture. I used the ‘cloudy’ white balance setting as there was thick cloud, which actually made interpreting the camera setting much easier.

Indoor scenes illuminated by artificial light:

Big Ben

DSC_0081

F22, ISO 250, 1/160 sec, WB Tungsten (fluorescent), EV 0

For this shot I wanted to re create a typical ‘product photograph’ I used a fairly strong lamp positioned directly over Big Ben. I wanted to cast some element of shadow to the front which is most apparent under the clock face. I used a fairly low ISO as the light was strong. I chose a narrow aperture so everything was in focus, and a fast shutter speed – again due to the light being fairly strong. The colours are all fairly similar – they appear yellow/beige. This can be altered by changing the white balance setting. Had I have used the ‘direct sunlight’ setting the image would have appeared much colder, as it would add a blue feeling to it. Plus, I wanted to use the correct white balance setting. I used sort metering on the clock face, as it’s the first mail focal point of Big Ben so I wanted it to be perfectly exposed.

Fridge

DSC_0095

F 22, ISO 500, 5 sec, WB incandescent, EV 0

For this shot I was prepared for the highlight clipping warning, but wanted to reduce it as much as possible. The top shelf (where the light source is) is blown out. If i’d tried to eliminate any form of clipping the objects in the fridge would have been under exposed. Again I chose a narrow aperture so the whole shot is in focus and tried to use a fairly low ISO so there wasn’t any noise in the photo. I changed my WB to incandescent as I felt this produced a better representation of what my eye was seeing. This shot required a long shutter speed of 5 seconds, as I wanted the chalk board to be slightly visible. I used spot metering on the hot sauces in the fridge door. The objects in the lower right drawer are still visible, adding depth and shadow to the shot.

Lava lamp

DSC_0126

F 5.6, ISO 8000, 1/20 sec, WB fluorescent white, EV 0

This is by far my favourite shot, and the shot that made me apply the most technical knowledge.  I wanted to experiment with directly shooting the light source as my subject. Strictly speaking, if you are photographing in a very dark area you can use a longer shutter speed to capture more of the light (the fridge is a good example of this as it had a speed of 5 seconds) however, I wanted to freeze the lava blobs, rather than have them in motion. So I cranked up my ISO to a high range of 8000 and reduced my shutter speed greatly. Using a high ISO has created some noise in the image, but I do not find this distracting or unsightly. I posted recently about the use of noise on a Vogue China shoot, and how it can add a grungy feel to an image. (for noise post please click here) I used matrix metering so I could gain an all round exposure reading from the blobs and the oil at the same time. I chose a fairly wide aperture as the main focus is the blobs, and having the background blurred adds to the overall feel of the image. I love how the base of the lamp fades into utter darkness and the blobs give off a purple haze.

Part 2:

Select one of the four situations and think about what the lighting conditions should be in order to reduce the contrast of the scene. Think about the different variables such as weather, changing composition, or adding some additional lighting. Photograph the same three images to reduce the contrast.

I’ve chosen to go with the artificial light images as I am short on time, and with it being indoors I have a much greater control over all my variables. However, if I was to recreate the natural light pictures I would chose an overcast/cloudy day, perhaps later on in the afternoon/ early evening. With the seedling i would place them further away from the window also.

For the street scenes I would again choose a day that is cloudy/overcast or later in the afternoon, early evening – when the sun is lower. I might change my composition to the other side of the street which would result in the sun being in a different position.

Big Ben

Big Ben

Reducing the contrast with this image was hard due to the blandness of colours. All I could really do was reposition the subject and the light, and add another light to reduce and soften the colours. In hindsight I should tried to create mrs contrast with the first Big Ben shot.

F13, ISO 200, 0.5 sec, WB Tungsten (fluorescent), EV 0

Fridge

Fridge

With this shot I added an over head light source. This reduced the highlight clippings quite significantly. There is still a bit of blow out by the fridge light, but it’s lesser than the original image.

F16, ISO 200, 1 sec, WB Tungsten (fluorescent), EV 0

Lava lamp

Lava lamp

F5.6, ISO 1250, 1/20 sec, WB incandescent, EV +1

I still wanted to freeze the blobs in motion so I used a high ISO again and added two light sources behind both of my shoulders. There was a tiny bit of clipping at the top of the lamp on the chrome, but I felt it was small enough to not be an issue. Plus, if I’d made the image any darker it would have been under exposed. Chrome is a shiny reflective surface, so eliminating any ‘shine’ is extremely difficult. I changed the WB setting as I wanted to avoid any orange/pink hue.

Conclusion

This assignment brought together all the settings I need to be aware of when shooting in manual mode, and taught me the importance of the technical variables in producing good photography. I can safely say I will now be shooting in manual mode all the time. The range of control it offers is so vast that you can create the kind of scenes that you visualise. It will allow me to be much more creative.

I found that different lighting situations had fairly similar reading/settings. For example, bright daylight often required the same white balance setting and a similar shutter speed, while low light conditions would use a much slower shutter speed. I also was very aware of the relationship between shutter speed and aperture. Metering is an incredible tool for being able to control what it is exactly that you want to correctly expose. It is an essential tool in creating silhouettes, and eliminating blow outs and clipping.