Research – People & Place

Part 2 of this module highlights the importance of speed, positioning and framing when photographing people both aware and unaware. The need to be inconspicuous when photographing people unaware means that often photographers switch to auto mode and auto focus to allow for minimal complications and heightened efficiency/speed when shooting the perfect moment.

This reminded me of when I spent half a day outside St Mary’s Hospital in Paddington waiting for the arrival of Princess Charlotte. I was amongst a huge group of paparazzo all waiting for that perfect shot. The most valuable advice they gave me was to shoot in auto and not fiddle around with camera settings, or you risk missing that ‘perfect’ moment that you may have been waiting hours/days for. They also advised shooting the ‘exact’ moment in continuous mode, or at rapid speed as to make sure you’ve captured a good few seconds of your subject. One shot, and you could end up with closed eyes, or unwanted facial expressions.

I was amazed that the paparazzi and often photo journalists resort to auto mode, but it makes so much sense. What they concentrate on more is their positioning, angles, framing and focal range, while saving time on manually programming camera settings.

I often thought that to be a successful photographer you had to always shoot in manual mode, and never rely on auto mode. But knowing your settings is just a part of being a photographer, the other factors that set you apart from the rest is your creative eye, art of framing, capturing expressions and photographing the perfect moment while standing out from your fellow photographers.


Assignment 1: A portrait

Take one person as a subject and create between five and seven different portraits. These should differ in type and style, and each be from a separate photographic session.

This assignment brief seems fairly straightforward. It’s very autumnal outside and I knew this would work well visually, with colours and the position of the sun. As soon as my brother, Jim, agreed to be my model I began planning locations, poses, time of day etc. I wanted a mixture of cropping, e.g. cropped face, full length etc and also wanted to include some indoor and outdoor, some day some night, and some black and white and colour photographs.

Lighting Up:

I love the strong shadows in this picture. They worked perfectly in providing a ‘frame’ for the shoot. The hint of graffiti on the back wall enhances the urban feel of the shot. I am happy with the strong lighting as it produced several strong shadows of my subject.

Skatepark session:

This shot was fairly difficult technically speaking. My subject was moving, so I knew from the outset that I’d need a fast shutter speed to capture Jim clearly. I also switched to continuous shoot mode to take rapid bursts as this would help me capture the movement in focus. As it was a night shoot I had to use a fairly high ISO and a narrow aperture to counter the fast shutter speed. Luckily thanks to the burst sequence of shots, I was able to use one where Jim is in front of the bright street light, causing a halo affect that I think works really well.

A Close Shave:

I wanted to capture part of Jim’s day to day activities, and a shot that was less set up and more natural. I wanted to shoot just over his left shoulder, capturing most of his face but not all of it, in the reflection.

Urban Modelling:

As soon as I saw this wall I loved the contrasting orange and green colours, and the very basic tagging on the wall made for some interesting shapes. I directed Jim in his posing, to create an almost fashion pose. I  like that you can only see one of his shoes, and one ripped knee.

Night Lights:

I wanted to include an image that had the face partially cropped. To add some interest to the image I positioned Jim in front of some fairy lights, and we decided a beanie would add depth to the image as it’s another element within the shot. I like how the detail of his face has been captured – from his pores to his beard. It’s sharp and evident.

Autumn Strolling:

This is probably my least successful shot, in that I should have used my prime 50mm lens. Using said lens would have produced a more blurred background which would have directed attention to Jim and also added an aesthetic element to the image. I’ve kept it in my final selects however, as I really like the colours captured and the idea of a portrait that does not include and features.

Half Lit:

Finally my favourite image from the set. I wanted to recreate a ‘studio’ type shot so positioned a strong light to the left of my model (from the photographers point of view). I wanted parts of his face and body to be totally obscured by shadow, so the only light source in the room came from the one artificial light.

Assessment Criteria:

Demonstration of Technical and Visual Skills:

Overall, I’m happy with the series of images I have produced, and their varied styles.

I paid close attention to the lighting available, whether this was a natural light source, or artificial source. I pre-visualised the ‘Half Lit’ photo the most, and had a concrete idea in my head of what I wanted to achieve visually. This shot took the most setting up and preparation, and this is perhaps why it is my favourite. I had complete control over all aspects – the light strength, height, distance from my model, the height of the stool my model was sitting on, the darkness of the room we were shooting in, the model’s pose and so on.

I’m glad I chose to include both colour and black and white shots as this adds variety. However, I’m aware that as a series of photographs this does perhaps hinder the overall feel of a set of images, as there is no constant style or theme throughout.


Quality of Outcome:

I am happy with the quality of the overall outcome in terms of individual images. I feel each shot is strong in terms of representing the brief.

‘Autumn Strolling’ is my weakest image. I decided to keep it in the series as it is a good concept in my opinion (a portrait where the face and features are totally obscured, and the autumnal colours really pop) but if I were to re-shoot it I’d have used a much wider aperture blurring the background significantly. This was human error in that I had gone out on the shoot without my prime lens – which would have been perfect for capturing this.

Demonstration of Creativity:

I think my creativity using light and shadows has been fairly apparent in this series. Seeking a location that would provide strong shadow casts on walls that I could use to frame my subject like in ‘Lighting Up’ has worked really well. With ‘Half Lit’ I was able to use artificial lighting to produce an interesting effect where certain areas are lit, and other areas are dark. I was adamant that I wanted to do several night shots, and realised I could use the strong streetlight at the skatepark to my advantage by timing the shot right so that Jim was obstructing the light, resulting in a halo like effect around him. (Had he not been in front of the light I fear it may have been a distraction and too bright.)

I’ve included at least one shot from each category of portrait photography that we learnt previously. Cropped face, head and shoulders, torso, full length and active portrait. I’ve included shots where there is no eye contact, and full eye contact making my selection as varied as possible.


So far portrait photography is the area I’m least familiar with. This is most likely because of the pressures it seems to bring with it, such as time and the fact that you are in full control of another person. I think as I get stronger with my portraits my confidence will grow and I’ll find myself doing far more portrait work in my personal portfolio. I have however photographed people unaware fairly often, so perhaps it’s the conscious pressure of instructing a model and maintaining eye contact (through the lens) that I sometimes find intimidating.

I now hope to research in depth portrait photographers,styles I like and dislike, and get a greater understanding of photographing people as a whole.

Portrait research

Before venturing off on my multiple photoshoots I wanted to explore further the techniques and settings photographers recommend for portrait photography.

The first site that I found really interesting is a post by Darren Rowse referencing techniques recommended by fashion photographer Adriana Curcio:

While I’m not focusing completely on ‘fashion’ photography, I found this post really helpful. She lists 7 key tips:


I felt that this would be crucial in portrait photography even before I began my research. It would be fundamental in a smooth running photoshoot, considering there is now another person/persons to think about (before this my photography was somewhat solitary.) Preparation of styles, poses, locations, time of day and equipment would all need to be pre-planned as much as possible.

It’s your concept:

This is one of my favourite tips. I like to research types and styles of photography, but try to not re-create them fully, but add my own creativity and style to my shoots. It’s also important to remember that the photographer ultimately has the final decision, even if perhaps nerves may mean we want to rely on and lean on the ideas of others, or seek approval of others.

Move and move some more:

I love this tip as I really try to use every angle I possibly can. This may result in a vast quantity of pictures to slim down in post processing, but I like to leave no stone unturned when it comes to angles and positioning.

Be a Director:

This is something i’m still learning and developing on. Being ‘in charge’ of someone else is a fairly new process for me. However, I’ve not faced any resistance (yet!) with directing my models.

Break the rules:

I’m a huge advocate of this. While I enjoy learning the techniques and ‘rules’ that are paramount in becoming a photographer, I also like to throw caution to the wind and go against the grain on these. A great example of this is with ‘the rule of thirds’ while it does make an image aesthetically pleasing, it can also be completely over ruled and produce some beautiful photography.

Never stop shooting:

I recently had a fairly long break from photography. Both courseware and personally. What a noticed the most was the impact that had when I next picked up my camera. This is now going to be a tip that I lie by. Photographing all the time feeds my creativity and expands my techniques, be them old or new.


This links into the tip above, I noticed I lost some of my confidence when I hadn’t picked up my camera for some time. Confidence is key. Especially in portrait photography. If my model feels or picks up on my nerves, they’re not going to be as relaxed as if I were full of confidence.

The second site I explored is:

This is more of a technical advice article, but none the less it gave me a great insight into what settings I should be using. I recently took the big giant leap over into manual mode, and will try, as mush as possible, to use this mode throughout my photography. However, this article advises aperture priority at times.

It also mentions certain lenses that are great for portrait photography such as a 50mm prime lens (one of my favourites). Depth of field is a key contributor, something that I was very aware of from using my prime lens in my personal photography.

Interestingly the article refers to upping the ISO to boost aperture and shutter speed. Something I can’t wait to play around with. I am aware of grain being added to a shot if the ISO is cranked up significantly, so I’ll experiment with the mid range.

Exposure compensation also proves to be of great importance in lightening/darkening certain areas of the face for example.


Exercise: An active portrait (P&P)

Discuss with your potential subject what kind of natural activity they would would be interested in and whether this would be indoors or outdoors. Avoid fast moving activity and preoccupy your subject.

This exercise was fairly straightforward – my brother is a dab hand at magic and was practising some card tricks. It was a relaxed location, and I was sitting with him chatting to make sure it did not look posed or staged.

I positioned myself to the left of Jim, in order to get the pattern of the cards and to capture a more interesting angle of the hands and the shuffle. I did not want him front on as I wanted to shoot almost fully side on to capture his expression, and to not lose any of his features as he is looking down. If this was front on I think I may have lost facial detail.

Exercise: Portrait – scale & setting (P&P)

Find an interesting and attractive setting for a portrait and produce the following 4 scales of portrait:

  • Face, cropped in close
  • Head and shoulders
  • Torso, taking into account arms and hands
  • Full figure

When you have processed the images, consider how a viewer will react to each portrait in terms of weight of attention to different elements.

Face, cropped in close:

The main focal point here, as would be expected on such a close up portrait is the eyes. I’ve used a wide aperture to soften the background almost to beyond recognition, as this pulls focus away from distracting objects and re-focuses on the eyes firstly, and then the other facial features.

Head and shoulders:

The eyes are still the main focus here, but also the positioning of the hand under the chin adds an aesthetic element. The fence in the background is more in focus, adding depth to the image.

Torso (arms taken into account)

The background has a stronger part to play in this image, and it now becomes evident that the shoot is by a bridge. I wanted to put another element in full focus to add layering to the image – the tree trunk. Now we have several objects (my model and the tree) as the initial focal points, rather than just the model. I think instant focus still lands directly on my model, and her face.

Full length:

In this image I would say the majority of the frame is in focus – my model, the tree, the ground, leaves and the water and bridge. As my model is in the centre of the frame the initial attention falls on her, and then the eye scans the rest of the image.


This was a fun exercise to do and made me as the photographer consider a multitude of elements – lighting, positioning of the face, the body, the arms, myself, aperture, how much of the background I wanted to be be blurred etc. I decided in order to add a tiny bit of creativity to a relatively straightforward exercise that I’d convert the two images where my model is not looking into the lens to black and white. Working on a project/shoot that involves a model calls for decisiveness and awareness of several factors such as time, temperature, perhaps a location change etc. I think it’s important to visit shoot locations, if possible, before the day of shooting to get a rough idea of potential backgrounds, props, posing areas etc.

Assignment 5 – Personal Project (DPP)

‘The World Through A Screen’

I’ve done a great deal of planning for this project such as subjects, locations, sub-themes and the inspiration behind my choices. My initial idea was to create a set of photographs based around  ‘pictures of people taking pictures‘ or ‘seeing the world through screens‘ and my inspiration came from every day life. So often on my commute I see people glued to their smart phones, and the need/desire to own a camera is dwindling as so many of us can rely on our phones. With numerous apps and editing software even the most un-photographic people are producing some great images. This is largely evident on social media, especially Instagram ( where people photograph everything; from breakfast, to clothing, to cocktails, to landscapes. The ability to produce aesthetic photographs with very little knowledge or equipment is on the rise.

I’m not being critical towards social media – I myself am a huge fan, and rely on social media to get my work seen – it’s enabled me to reach a far greater audience than I’d ever be capable of myself.

Nowadays people really are capturing every moment. Technology is so advanced that an inbuilt camera within a phone can create stunning imagery. There are sites dedicated to iPhone photography, and numerous Instagram users have found fame through such avenues.

Why we feel the need to photograph our entire lives from lunches, our journeys, our outfits and so on is baffling. It seems as though we are searching for some kind of positive re-inforcement that we lead exciting lives, that we keep up with fashion, and that there’s a sense of social acceptance attached to social media ‘likes’. It’s a dangerous avenue for the youth of today.

Living in London I see tourists on a daily basis snapping away with their phones. Whether it’s The London Eye or Big Ben, almost everyone has instant access to a photographic device that’s small enough to slip into a pocket.

With that in mind I wanted to capture a first person perspective of taking a photo on an iPhone (this seemed more challenging than just photographing people in the middle of taking photos) but as this module focuses on editing I’ve chosen to incorporate some subtle and not-so-subtle ‘tweaks’ as it were. Research wise there were several examples of what I’d like to loosely base my project on, but I did not come across anything similar by a photographer in which to reference.

Big Ben

From the outset I wanted to horizontally flip the image that would be shown on the iPhone screen, which may not be instantly apparent when first viewing it. This shot provided several obstacles for me:

Firstly the bright sunshine was very strong on the left hand side of the image, which meant my model (my arms simply aren’t long enough) had to tilt the screen a fair amount to avoid glare off the front of the screen. This meant the phone display was in the shade and was hard to take meter readings from that didn’t result in the background being blown out.

What I eventually did was edit in a photograph onto the front of the display, and add the phone icons to the front of the phone. So, this image actually uses two separate images.

I used a fairly wide aperture as I wanted an artistic subtle blur to the background, but I didn’t want it so blurry that you couldn’t make out the impressive architecture.

The Albert Bridge, Stamford

This small town bridge has a beautiful old fashioned light in the centre of it, which I wanted to incorporate. The metal of the bridge is white, and I wanted to extend on this in contrast to the orange hue given off by the street light. Again, this image uses multiple pictures; there are in fact 3. The background image of the bridge has been edited to enhance the moody feel of the sky, and render the other details in the picture almost black and white. I wanted the white of the bridge to be very prominent. The silhouette of the hand holding the phone is the second picture. I had tried to capture this shot organically, but it was just too difficult to have every part I wanted, correctly exposed. Originally I shot the hand with the flash on, as I thought this could give an interesting effect. However, in the post processing phase it looked far too ‘fake’ when applied to the background picture using layers. I also decided that I wanted the centre of the image to be the main focal point, and the flash shot hand was too distracting. So with this in mind I converted the hand to a silhouette, bearing in mind it was a night shot; I think this adds to the eerie mood of the photograph. My tutor mentioned that I should perhaps re-shoot this image with the hand slightly illuminated, but I wanted the hand and its features to be totally void in both this shot and ‘Paused in Motion’. With it being in the centre of this image I think the silhouette effect helps draw the eye to the phone screen. It is evident that a hand is holding the phone, but it is in no way distracting. As this shot and ‘Paused in Motion’ were both shot at night, the blacked out hand helps to amplify this.

The third shot was taken on my DSLR and it is of the bridge view itself. I set my white balance setting to tungsten to really grab the orange hue. By taking all 3 photos in a fixed position I was able to line up the sides of the bridge to go from one picture to another with relative ease. The bridge appears far longer than it actually is, and the sense of continuity is very apparent in the shot. The keen eye will detect that one of the images has again been flipped – it was the background image. I wanted the more modern lamppost to be on the opposite side of the iPhone image to balance it out slightly. Again, I added the phone icons at the final stage of editing.

I wanted all areas to be in focus, so used a small aperture.

Going, Going, Gone

This image is one of my favorites. It was relatively easy to do, and I had quite a lot of control over it. (lighting, positioning, the appearance of the pancakes in their full state, the appearance of the finished plate) Again this image uses 2 photographs. My technique differed slightly with this shot – it was one of the first ones I created for this series and the phone photo was actually taken on the phone, rather than edited in later. To get the icons I actually took a screen shot of the pancake plate, as this photographs the whole display of the iPhone, not just what’s in the viewfinder on camera mode. The only downside to this was that the screenshot is lower quality. However, looking at the image as a whole this is not apparent.

I was careful to photograph both pictures using the same orientation of the background surface so as to add to the continuity of the shot. I then ate the pancakes, and created the messy after plate!

I positioned the plate by a brightly sunlit window and snapped away, and used a mid-range aperture.

Bloomin’ Trickery

Again, this was one of the first in the series, so my technique was fairly new. The photographic surface remained the same, to add continuity. I also positioned the model at an angle that would keep the grain in the wood running the same way. I did however, take the photo of the daffodils on my DSLR later editing this onto the front of the phone screen. I added the icons to the front of the display. The edit is clearly obvious, using 2 different types of flowers. Using the same surface for both pictures and lining up the grain of the wood helps in some way to retain continuity.

Maybe it’s Maybelline…

This image is one of two images that were taken organically, in one shot. It was fairly simple to do, using natural lighting and a wide aperture. I wanted a ‘tongue in cheek’ feel as the selfie craze seems to have taken over in recent years. I wanted the model to be almost one big giant blur as this draws your eye to the front of the phone screen. The sunglasses break up the face in the background. Had they not been worn I would have used less blur. The only change I made is obviously the lips. While at first glance it may look like the lipstick has been painted on in post processing, this is the real colour of the models lips. I desaturated the whole image, excluding the lip area.

Black and white images with only a splash of colour are a great marketing technique as they focus solely on a certain part of the image.

In Full Bloom

For this image I used a stock photograph courtesy of Google images ( of a single tree in full bloom, on a gorgeous sunny day. I then visited numerous locations to try and find a background setting that would/could incorporate the tree smoothly. Initially I had the stock image on the phone itself, but again came across some metering difficulties, so I added the stock photo in post processing. I added the phone icons, and made the background picture look more gloomy by decreasing the saturation somewhat, and altering the shadows and highlights. By lining up the grass level on the horizon, this image has the feel of continuity.

Paused In Motion

This is technically my best shot I think. Much like the other nighttime shot it actually has 3 separate photos in it. The background shot is a long exposure shot, and had a shutter speed of 30 seconds.  Any longer and the traffic beam trail wouldn’t have been so obvious (it was shot in a fairly quiet area of my hometown where traffic is not a guaranteed constant) It was a stroke of luck that one of the cars turned left – creating the blur on the right hand side. As with the bridge photograph I decided on turning the hand into a silhouette. I really think it enhances the night feel, and doesn’t warrant too much unnecessary attention. Again, the phone icons were added in the post production stage.

The image that I edited onto the phone screen was taken from exactly the same angle, only with a much quicker shutter speed to pause the cars in motion.

Every Cloud…

I love the simplicity of this shot. I didn’t want just a plain blue sky and the one cloud, so opted for a location that would give some strong abstract angles to add some interest to the shot. This shot took a while to create – mainly because I had to wait for a day of pure sunshine! I did not want to edit out too much of the sky or remove unwanted clouds.

Editing wise – I rammed up the vibrancy to produce the gorgeous vivid blue hue and also to match the blue of the stock photograph I got from of the cloud. I wanted the colours to be as identical as possible to make it appear as if it could actually be there in the sky.

I used a wide angle lens so I could squeeze in the tall buildings around me, and place the cloud in the centre.

Brentford Bokeh

Brentford was once an industrial area, home to huge factories and warehouses. Although recently undergoing a huge makeover – there are still several areas that have an industrial feel. I wanted to incorporate this grungy feel in this photograph. Once I found my location I shot the background shot on a relatively high ISO to add noise to the image. I was lucky enough that a skip had been moved to the location – enhancing the industrial feel.

I then took a ‘bokeh‘ shot of the traffic lights and added this into the phone screen along with the icons. To add to the aesthetics of the picture I’ve added a small lens flare effect to the phone display image, and blurred the colourful lights some more. I wanted the image on the phone to be a continuation of the overall picture, and with the traffic in the background of the main image I feel this has been established.

Street Life

This shot was taken whole. The phone display has not been altered in any way. I really like how the arrow of the street markings came out on the phone display. Due to the location of the shoot I had to be quick – which was rather exciting considering the volume of traffic on Oxford Street! The quality of the phone display is somewhat weak – but this is to be expected when taking a photo like this. I wanted to make sure I had included at least one outdoor shot that was taken naturally. Editing wise I’ve had a play with the contrast to make the red and blue within the display ‘pop’ a bit more, but that’s really about it. I’ve cropped it to an aspect ratio of 4:5 to really draw the viewers eye to the phone, removing dead space at the top and bottom of the image. I was adamant I wanted to have the famous London red bus in the shot. The blurred one in the background compared to the focussed one in the phone really draws your eye to the phone display.

Assessment criteria

Looking at the collection as a whole I think the images could almost be used as advertising for a phone product.

I’ve really enjoyed this assignment as the creative aspect really got me thinking and testing my skills both behind the camera and in the editing stage. That is not to say it didn’t present some barriers along the way – It look far longer than I’d anticipated for a start, and while some of this was due to personal reasons, the researching and idea stage was lengthy.

Demonstration of Technical and Visual Skills materials, techniques, observational skills, visual awareness, design and compositional skills

Technically this was one of my most challenging assignments to date. For most of the images I had more than one photograph to create and produce. I have very little problem in visualising my ideas, but as with most tasks, sometimes the practical aspect is harder to obtain. None of these images have been the result of a ‘fluke’ as some of my previous ones have.

The editing side was also fairly tasking – I had to create multiple layers of images and icons to create this set of pictures. It was relatively time consuming and lining up the icons so they did not look out of place or wrong was difficult at times. Luckily as the brief was so open ended I could really play around with the editing stage. This was also somewhat of a problem as I kept doubting my final image. I’d come back to it after a break and add/subtract/make tweaks here and there, when in hindsight it was not necessary.

Quality of Outcome content, application of knowledge, presentation of work in a coherent manner, discernment, conceptualisation of thoughts, communication of ideas

My learning log is steadily growing with photographers I’ve come across, or photographers that have been introduced to me via my tutor. Recently I posted about Andreas Levers (view post here) and his incredible traffic light photography. I’ve recently added to my ever growing collection of photography books – of which I must write on my blog and reference as I gain a great deal of insight from them. I’m still aware that I should add more of my personal work to my blog, but in between assignments and my full time job sometimes my personal photography can fall behind.

My tutor mentioned perhaps expanding further on this series of photographs to include the phone being held with two hands – this is something I actually tried during the shoot, but it caused several problems. Firstly it was extremely hard to shoot the phone flat for digitally applying the second image where needs be. To position myself in-between the model’s arms was difficult and resulted in weaker images. It’s an avenue I hope to explore on, as I do agree that a varied shooting style would reflect a wider range of camera-phone photographers.

Demonstration of Creativity imagination, experimentation, invention, development of personal voice

I think i’ve demonstrated my creativity very well here. All images are a very accurate representation of what I wanted to achieve with each shot. I followed my workflow closer on this assignment than on any others. I didn’t drift between the initial idea and the final product. What I visualised has been the outcome of my images. Something I am very proud of.

I really feel like iIve put my own creative stamp on this assignment. It’s a very well organised series of photographs that all have a common theme/style but have varying subjects.

Context reflection, research, critical thinking (learning log)

This assignment worked as a learning curve for me. Usually my photography can be very solitary in that it’s just me and my camera. I’m not conscious of any time limits or other variables apart from the ones set by myself. However in this project I had a model helping me. I learnt a great deal from having to instruct the model in relation to positioning, hand height, angling the phone screen to avoid glare etc. It was almost like there was added pressure. I didn’t want to be at some of the locations for too long (weather variables, time of night and so on) so I really had to be on the ball and be precise.

My tutor did mention that I look into cropping this series square, almost to replicate a polaroid set. I have added square versions of the set below and agree that they work extremely well as squares. I often shy away from using a 1:1 ratio crop as I find square images are sometimes less aesthetically pleasing than, say, 4:5 but in this case it really does work.

Square versions:


Research and Preparation #2

After landing on the final idea for this assignment I’ve changed my mind AGAIN! The idea I had hoped to bring to life is still one that I will pursue as a side project, but I hit a wall –  producing 10 – 12 images using my desired technique would be somewhat difficult, while producing, say, 4/5 images would be great. So with this in mind i’ve done a full 360 and decided to go with my first, initial idea. (This seems to be a common situation, I think sometimes I should go with my gut instinct and not doubt myself.)

I recently headed out to a very cold and wintery Trafalgar square to observe people taking pictures. I had the idea of taking pictures of people taking pictures, and came home with some great ideas. I’m now going to expand on this further, do some more research, and make sketches of what I want to create.

As i mentioned in an earlier post, I want this to be my most creative assignment so far, and do not want to rush the preparation in order to submit it as soon as possible. It’s going to require a fair bit of planning and putting together….